The Ultimate Guide to DIY Off-Grid Solar Systems – 05 – Charge controllers

charge controller overall view of the
solar system DC switches and busbars
are discussed in previous videos now it’s the time to introduce the charge
control in this video we will be talking about solar charge controllers here are
the topics that we will be discussing in this video solar charge controller is
one of the main components of the off-grid solar system simply it manages
charging the battery bank charge controller is a voltage or current
regulator which ensures a healthy charge profile for the batteries and protect
them from overcharging solar charge controller goes between the solar panels
and the battery there are mainly two types of solar charge controllers pulse
width modulation or PWM charge controllers and maximum power point
tracking for MPPT charge controllers for this installation we have chosen an
MPPT charge controller MPPT charge controller tracks the output of solar
array and adjust the charging voltage and current so that the obtained energy
from the batteries is always maximized the overall performance of an MPPT
charge controller is usually up to 30% more than it’s similar PWM counterpart
what is also great about MPPT charge controllers is that they can accept
higher input voltages from the PV array and turn their voltage to current to
increase the charging performance of the solar system here the simplified
schematic of an MPPT charge controller is presented the main principle is to
get electrical energy from solar panels and provide the most efficient charge
profile for the batteries the sampling circuit gathers the information from the
solar system and sends data to MCU MCU as the brain of this
structure controls the whole circuits and manages several tasks such as
collecting info running search algorithms checking the battery status
and providing functional electrical commands according to the state of the
charge of the battery and a PV array input maximum power point is determined
by the MCU and the driver circuit is used to provide the optimum amount of the
charging voltage and current for the batteries batteries are not always
charged with the same profile multistage charging function is usually provided in
an MPPT system to adjust the charging profile with the batteries the
state of charge this ensures the batteries health and prolongs its life
let’s now look at the charge controller itself you can see five buttons three
LED indicators six terminals a temperature sensor input
and rs-485 port there are three pairs of terminals at the bottom of MPPT charge
controller the first pair is employed to connect the solar arrays positive and
negative terminal the second pair is dedicated to connect the battery to the
charge controller and the third pair connects the DC load to the charge
controller but why we need a temperature sensor MPPT charge controllers are smart
devices and as we know heat degrades the efficiency of an electrical system so
temperature sensors are employed in charge controllers to avoid extra high
or low temperatures for instance lithium batteries are
involved with explosions in the temperatures below zero so the charge
controller manages the proper operation by temperature sensor. now let’s
introduce the controller buttons of the MPPT charge controller PV button
demonstrates the voltage current power and cumulative energy stored BATT button
illustrates the voltage current temperature and the state of the charge
of the battery load button demonstrates the voltage current energy consumed
energy and different modes of DC loads respectively set button is employed to
change the display style of the parameters and together with the power
ESC button it is also used to enter and exit the setting interface of the
controller for setting parameters there is a separate video about parameter
settings of the MPPT controller which you can find in our channel here you can
see different types of charge controllers both MPPT and PWM some
controllers are also designed modular so that they can be used according to their
specific applications it should be noted that all types of the charge controllers
employ same standard terminal configurations
however some models have different terminals monitoring LCD is not the only
device which monitors the charge controller parameters using the rs-485
port there are lots of devices and choices which provide means for
monitoring here are some of those devices remote meter or MT 50 data
logger bluetooth adapter and Wi-Fi adapter rs-485 port also
enables to get connected with the mobile and PC in next videos we will learn more
about how to connect and use each device in more details

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