Global Climate Change

Global Climate Change


Hi. It’s Mr. Andersen, and this is AP Environmental Sciences video 34. It’s on global climate change. The climate is affected by essentially two things, the amount of solar radiation we get and the greenhouse effect. And so as these change over time the climate is going to fluctuate. We’re going to have little ice ages. We’re going to have warming periods. The problem right now is the climate is changing too quickly. The globe is heating up, and that global warming is caused by us. We’re increasing the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. And so if we look at carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere post industrialization, we haven’t seen these levels in the last four hundred thousand years. And countries are going to be affected by this. The environment will be affected by this. And so they’ve been meeting over the last two decades at the UN Climate Change Conference as a way to figure out how we can reduce these greenhouse gases. The first protocol was the Kyoto protocol. And then more recently in 2015 is the Paris Agreement. You can see right here president Obama in the middle. The US pledged for a 26 to 28 percent reduction in greenhouse gases. China is going to peak their carbon Dioxide by 2030. 40% reduction in the EU. 37 percent reduction in Brazil. But these are all simply pledges that they’ve agreed to. They’re not legally binding. The only thing that’s legally binding is we’re going to start monitoring the greenhouse gases. And so we’ll see how that plays out over the next five to ten years. And so the climate is affected by the solar radiation and the greenhouse effect. And as those change we get global climate change which can impact the environment and therefore can impact the humans. The problem we have right now is it’s getting too hot too fast. We can’t really affect solar radiation so we look to the greenhouse gases as a culprit. The five different ones that we’ll talk about are water, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and then CFCs. What they do in the atmosphere is they essentially trap infrared radiation. Some of these sources are natural So volcanoes for example are going to put carbon dioxide and water vapor into the atmosphere. But a lot of these are Anthropogenic. In other words, we’re producing these and they’re warming up the planet. And so treaties are being signed to reduce the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, to kind of mediate some of these human impacts. Kyoto Protocol and Paris agreement are 2 that we’ll talk about. So how does the greenhouse effect work? Well let’s say that the Earth didn’t have an atmosphere and clearly this model is all off but if it didn’t then light would come from the sun. It would hit the planet a lot of that is reflected back into space, but some of it is converted into infrared radiation. It also would go into space. And so the earth would essentially be a ball of ice. There wouldn’t be enough heat to heat the planet. And so what happens with an atmosphere is that we trap that. So once it hits the planet that heat is left behind. And so it warms it up. It works just like a greenhouse does on a warm day. So if we look more specifically of what’s going on with the greenhouse gases This is a phet simulation. And so what I’m going to do is I’m going to create an essential atmosphere. So I’m going to put a little bit of nitrogen in the atmosphere. We’re going to put some oxygen in the atmosphere. We’re going to put in a little bit of water vapor in the atmosphere. Now we’ve got some carbon dioxide and finally we have some methane. So this is our pretend simulated atmosphere and as light moves through it you can see that it’s not interacting with any of those gases. That’s how the light gets through the atmosphere to our planet. Once it hits the planet it converts to infrared radiation. Watch what happens as that starts to leave the planet. You can see that some of these are are refracting some of that infrared radiation. Instead of moving back into space it actually returns. What are those greenhouse gases? We can see methane. We can see water. We can see carbon dioxide. But the oxygen and the nitrogen aren’t impacted at all. And so greenhouse gases are water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane nitrous oxide and CFCs. These are molecules in the atmosphere that trap that infrared radiation. A lot of those are made through natural processes. And so carbon dioxide is produced in a volcanic eruption like this. Also a lot of sediment moves into the atmosphere which will actually cool the planet from a volcano. Or this giant termite mound is going to produce methane gas that goes into the atmosphere. The problem is that a lot of these are anthropogenic. In other words we’re making them. humans are making them. And we’re making them through agriculture, through power, through industrialization. If we look at the three major culprits carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide. They’re produced by different activities on our planet but all of them are heating our planet. You can see that agriculture impacts a lot of especially methane and nitrous oxide. And what it’s doing is it’s warming up our planet. You can see in all parts of our planet we’re seeing increases in temperature. And some are predicting increases up to three or four degrees Celsius change over time and so we have to start to mediate that. Because what happens as we increase the temperature is we’re going to get a melting of glaciers, snow cover goes away, polar ice caps go away, sea levels start to rise. And as a result of these environmental impacts we’re going to have human impacts. So we’re going to have droughts. Forest fires may increase. The size of the storms are going to get greater because we’re going to have a higher amount of radiation. And then we’re going to have increases in in the sea level. And so if you live near that coast it’s going to impact you. If we look at human impacts these are all the humans that are going to be impacted. If we look at first of all the blue it’s hard to see but all the islands, obviously, as the sea levels start to rise are going to be impacted. Especially if you live around these deltas. All these purple areas are going to be hurricanes. All these yellow areas are going to be droughts. We’re also going to see changes in disease. Malaria is going to start to move to areas where it was never found before. Those droughts are going to lead to decreases in agricultural yields. And that’s going to impact humans as well. And so what do we do? countries are coming together. This is a global problem. No one owns the atmosphere. we all own it together. So we have to work together. And so the first was the Kyoto protocol. It was a reduction in greenhouse gases. You can see that only the green countries were legally binding to reducing the amount of greenhouse gases. A lot of them weren’t legally bound. The US didn’t ratify it. Canada pulled out after a year. 2015 again we have the Paris agreement where all these countries are making pledges on reducing the amount of greenhouse gases. And the goal is to keep that change on our planet under two degrees Celsius as we go into the next century. But it’s going to require us kind of to work together. So did you learn the following? Could you pause the video and fill in all the blanks? Let me do that for you. Global climate change is affected by solar radiation and the greenhouse effect. It’s going to cause human impacts. The greenhouse gases are water vapor Carbon dioxide is the big one. Methane, nitrous oxide, CFCs. Remember the source of these greenhouse gases is natural and Anthropogenic. And so to reduce that we’re signing treaties like the Kyoto protocol and the Paris agreement. So that’s global climate change, and I hope that was helpful.

15 COMMENTS

    I do love the irony of flying everybody out to a conference to talk about how to remove unnecessary pollution

    is there a way to do this simulation in real life? is there a handheld meter that can measure greenhouse gases and temperature that I could replicate on something scaled?

    And you wonder why the kids are completely confused. Nothing like a good dose of junk science. And junk graphs, if you want to see the graphs before they were doctored search Tony Heller. As for the greenhouse effect it is has a very minor effect on temperature. Water vapour accounts for 95% of the greenhouse gases. CO2 and methane are minor greenhouse gases measured in parts per million and parts per billion in the atmosphere respectively. The man made contributions of those gases is an even much smaller fraction. This means absorption of the IR radiation is minuscule by these minor greenhouse gases. And the reduction of the man made portion would have almost zero effect on temp and is pointless.

    Spend your time and money dealing with our waste management crisis and real pollution and stop being manipulated by the IPCC and the fake science. The theory that governs temperature on this planet and others like Venus and Mars is atmospheric pressure. PV=nRT it is in align with the natural gas laws which show a relation to pressure, volume and temperature.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1Y_n283fYbc
    The other obvious main effect on the climate is the orbits of the planets and the Sun. Milankovich cycles etc.
    Show me one experiment that demonstrates the greenhouse effect as it exist on Earth in an open system and not one that is demonstrating atmospheric pressure by increasing gas particles.

    Actual scientist have proven this theory false and there are court cases now that make it unmistakable that Humans impact on climate is minuscule at best!

    According to the Vostok Ice Core Records, CO2 level changes have followed Earth's overall temperature changes at an 800 year lag for the last 800,000 years. That means that our current CO2 levels are the result of Earth's overall temperature 800 years ago. World leaders have convinced their dependents that this works in the reverse order, relatively quickly, and that we are to blame, so that they can tax us out of a false shared guilt in order to be able to afford to "fight" climate change, an unstoppable natural cycle. The following is the source of this information:

    Historical Carbon Dioxide Record from the Vostok Ice Core

    Investigators
    J.-M. Barnola, D. Raynaud, C. Lorius
    Laboratoire de Glaciologie et de Géophysique de l'Environnement,
    CNRS, BP96,
    38402 Saint Martin d'Heres Cedex, France

    N.I. Barkov
    Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute,
    Beringa Street 38, 199397,
    St. Petersburg, Russia

    Period of Record
    417,160 – 2,342 years BP

    Methods
    In January 1998, the collaborative ice-drilling project between Russia, the United States, and France at the Russian Vostok station in East Antarctica yielded the deepest ice core ever recovered, reaching a depth of 3,623 m (Petit et al. 1997, 1999). Ice cores are unique with their entrapped air inclusions enabling direct records of past changes in atmospheric trace-gas composition. Preliminary data indicate the Vostok ice-core record extends through four climate cycles, with ice slightly older than 400 kyr (Petit et al. 1997, 1999). Because air bubbles do not close at the surface of the ice sheet but only near the firn-ice transition (that is, at ~90 m below the surface at Vostok), the air extracted from the ice is younger than the surrounding ice (Barnola et al. 1991). Using semiempirical models of densification applied to past Vostok climate conditions, Barnola et al. (1991) reported that the age difference between air and ice may be ~6000 years during the coldest periods instead of ~4000 years, as previously assumed. Ice samples were cut with a bandsaw in a cold room (at about -15°C) as close as possible to the center of the core in order to avoid surface contamination (Barnola et al. 1983). Gas extraction and measurements were performed with the "Grenoble analytical setup," which involved crushing the ice sample (~40 g) under vacuum in a stainless-steel container without melting it, expanding the gas released during the crushing in a pre-evacuated sampling loop, and analyzing the CO2 concentrations by gas chromatography (Barnola et al. 1983). The analytical system, except for the stainless-steel container in which the ice was crushed, was calibrated for each ice sample measurement with a standard mixture of CO2 in nitrogen and oxygen. For further details on the experimental procedures and the dating of the successive ice layers at Vostok, see Barnola et al. (1987, 1991), Lorius et al. (1985), and Petit et al. (1999).

    Trends
    There is a close correlation between Antarctic temperature and atmospheric concentrations of CO2 (Barnola et al. 1987). The extension of the Vostok CO2 record shows that the main trends of CO2 are similar for each glacial cycle. Major transitions from the lowest to the highest values are associated with glacial-interglacial transitions. During these transitions, the atmospheric concentrations of CO2 rises from 180 to 280-300 ppmv (Petit et al. 1999). The extension of the Vostok CO2 record shows the present-day levels of CO2 are unprecedented during the past 420 kyr. Pre-industrial Holocene levels (~280 ppmv) are found during all interglacials, with the highest values (~300 ppmv) found approximately 323 kyr BP. When the Vostok ice core data were compared with other ice core data (Delmas et al. 1980; Neftel et al. 1982) for the past 30,000 – 40,000 years, good agreement was found between the records: all show low CO2 values [~200 parts per million by volume (ppmv)] during the Last Glacial Maximum and increased atmospheric CO2 concentrations associated with the glacial-Holocene transition. According to Barnola et al. (1991) and Petit et al. (1999) these measurements indicate that, at the beginning of the deglaciations, the CO2 increase either was in phase or lagged by less than ~1000 years with respect to the Antarctic temperature, whereas it clearly lagged behind the temperature at the onset of the glaciations.

    References
    Barnola, J.-M., D. Raynaud, A. Neftel, and H. Oeschger. 1983. Comparison of CO2 measurements by two laboratories on air from bubbles in polar ice. Nature 303:410-13.

    Barnola, J.-M., D. Raynaud, Y.S. Korotkevich, and C. Lorius. 1987. Vostok ice core provides 160,000-year record of atmospheric CO2. Nature 329:408-14.

    Barnola, J.-M., P. Pimienta, D. Raynaud, and Y.S. Korotkevich. 1991. CO2-climate relationship as deduced from the Vostok ice core: A re-examination based on new measurements and on a re-evaluation of the air dating. Tellus 43(B):83- 90.

    Delmas, R.J., J.-M. Ascencio, and M. Legrand. 1980. Polar ice evidence that atmospheric CO2 20,000 yr BP was 50% of present. Nature 284:155-57.

    Jouzel, J., C. Lorius, J.R. Petit, C. Genthon, N.I. Barkov, V.M. Kotlyakov, and V.M. Petrov. 1987. Vostok ice core: A continuous isotopic temperature record over the last climatic cycle (160,000 years). Nature 329:403-8.

    Lorius, C., J. Jouzel, C. Ritz, L. Merlivat, N.I. Barkov, Y.S. Korotkevich, and V.M. Kotlyakov. 1985. A 150,000-year climatic record from Antarctic ice. Nature 316:591-96.

    Neftel, A., H. Oeschger, J. Schwander, B. Stauffer, and R. Zumbrunn. 1982. Ice core measurements give atmospheric CO2 content during the past 40,000 yr. Nature 295:220-23.

    Pepin, L., D. Raynaud, J.-M. Barnola, and M.F. Loutre. 2001. Hemispheric roles of climate forcings during glacial-interglacial transitions as deduced from the Vostok record and LLN-2D model experiments. Journal of Geophysical Research 106 (D23): 31,885-31,892.

    Petit, J.R., I. Basile, A. Leruyuet, D. Raynaud, C. Lorius, J. Jouzel, M. Stievenard, V.Y. Lipenkov, N.I. Barkov, B.B. Kudryashov, M. Davis, E. Saltzman, and V. Kotlyakov. 1997. Four climate cycles in Vostok ice core. Nature 387: 359-360.

    Petit, J.R., J. Jouzel, D. Raynaud, N.I. Barkov, J.-M. Barnola, I. Basile, M. Benders, J. Chappellaz, M. Davis, G. Delayque, M. Delmotte, V.M. Kotlyakov, M. Legrand, V.Y. Lipenkov, C. Lorius, L. Pépin, C. Ritz, E. Saltzman, and M. Stievenard. 1999. Climate and atmospheric history of the past 420,000 years from the Vostok ice core, Antarctica. Nature 399: 429-436.

    Raynaud, D., and J.-M. Barnola. 1985. An Antarctic ice core reveals atmospheric CO2 variations over the past few centuries. Nature 315:309-11.

    CITE AS: Barnola, J.-M., D. Raynaud, C. Lorius, and N.I. Barkov. 2003. Historical CO2 record from the Vostok ice core. In Trends: A Compendium of Data on Global Change. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, Tenn., U.S.A.

    Revised February 2003

    Progressives have been preaching about global climate change since back in Theodore Roosevelts administration… I am not a denier… I will leave that up to the numerous meteorologists such as the late John Coleman founder of the Weather Channel. He may have passed away…but his argument still stands and can not be proven wrong…..you are being duped….

    Regarding global warming, you’re half way to understanding it if you know that when there is sufficient carbon dioxide in the atmosphere the greenhouse effect keeps the planet from freezing over (Snowball Earth). The “rest of the story” (to coin a phrase that Paul Harvey popularized) is that when there’s too much CO2, then global temperatures move too far in the opposite direction.
    Search:
    ‘samslair blogspot comments AGW’

    Great vid to increase awareness. But I'm always disappointed in graphics that symbolize the earth's atmosphere but do not mention that those graphics are not to scale. Our earth has a very thin atmosphere and we need people to be more aware of this fact. Maybe watch my vid: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4zx60VIQ6yQ&t=15s

    Only a moron would think that Climate Change is a "hoax". Science denial is a global security threat. The US must re-enter the Paris Climate Accord & support the Green New Deal.

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RYX9ahqceAI

    in the uk it rarely snows now. lets c for sure how much carbon cars
    emit.

    http://www.oica.net/category/climate-change-and-co2/

    it is clear to c on the website above by the pie chart that global
    warming is due to energy and heating supply.

    uk has 15 nuclear reactors and the uk is always pioneering the
    "good stuff". death penalty is another example.

    https://energialimpiaparatodos.com/2019/08/26/uk-sets-new-record-in-100-eco-friendly-buses-with-china-byd/

    shame on the world for rejecting nuclear power

    shame on the world for not moving on the global warming problem.

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