DEF CON 24 – Fred Bret Mounet – All Your Solar Panels are belong to Me

DEF CON 24 – Fred Bret Mounet – All Your Solar Panels are belong to Me

[applause]>>First thing I need
to record my selfie. [pause]
[off mic comments] [pause] [off mic comments] [whistles heckling
from audience] [pause]>>Thanks
you guys. Whatever the outcome is I have evidence that it was a
success. [laughter] Semi
success. Um [speaks in French] [off mic comments] Excellent!
[pause] [off mic comments]
[breath] Oh god! Lift You guys are working on that? Okay.
[speaks in French until 1:06] Um
for the yeah sorry closed captioning. Sorry folks. A
wonderful French movie um called
The Dinner Game. Very dark French humor. Um who has solar
panels? Who cares about their
privacy? Yeah! You didn’t um raise your hand. Get out.
[laughter] There’s an EFF talk I
think next door. You can ask about privacy. Still nothing? Is
it working on that side? Yeah.
Who’s seen War Games? Excellent movie. It hasn’t aged a minute.
[laughter] I did. Um but even if
uh Litchfield was cool I was much more serious about my
craft. Serious enough not to
have the distraction of a girlfriend. By choice of course.
Um [laughter] This quote is
excellent. It is actually what I believe I am. Trying to take
things opening them up and
figuring out ways to make them better. Isn’t that why you’re
all here? [pause, whistle,
pause] It’s not happy hour yet. Hey by the way I need my speaker
shot. I could use 2 actually.
[off mic comment] Thank you! [yell from audience, pause] So
we’re going to talk solar. Um
this is a system by Tygo. [pause] I brought the little
part that is the only piece
we’re going to look at today. Which is the the connection
between the solar array and the
internet. [pause] It’s really cool because not only does it
upload configure um production
data to the internet. It also downloads configuration of the
panels. Things like maximum um
power voltage maximum temperature of the panels and
things like that. Of course over
the internet um what it does is gives the installer the ability
to monitor remotely the
production of my system. Why? Because they have an SLA and
they actually guarantee
production of my array and they’ll pay me back if it
doesn’t produce what it’s
expected to. Yes indeed. Um I could. I would not. Cause think
about it. About 9000 Kilowatt
hours a year of production. This says 15 cents. Yes I could score
a thousand two thousand bucks
but I would get busted for it. Because this is not the only
thing that reports my
production. So that angle you can have fun um not with me.
[pause] This is what’s what
started it all. You know how you take your nest and or any IOT
device when you initially power
it it starts advertising and access point. Uh you connect to
it. Configure it. Tell it this
is my home network. And then it shuts down and becomes just a
wifi client. Not this one. It
connects both to my network as well as the open access point.
Um that really really bugged me.
[pause] So started to need to figure I needed to figure out
how to fix that problem. And
started inventorying all the attack surfaces I had uh at my
disposal. We talked about the
access point. And little HDTP server that we’ll talk about
later. SSH cool. Yeah except
there’s a built in uh defense in depth maybe. It crashes after 15
hundred tries. I have to
re-power the uh res power cycle the device. So quickly it was no
longer funny. Um serial to TCP.
I never got it to work unfortunately. But it had a nice
little UI. Do you want the uh
the console to be tunneled through TCP or the display. This
little guy. Or the gateway that
it controls through uh through um serial port. [pause] From a
physical perspective of course I
opened that box. Remember what I told you? I take a screwdriver
to anything. Um [pause] nicely
labeled at the bottom left of the screen. You see a little uh
silkscreen of console. Guess
what. You plug in your um serial to USB connector and it works.
So I had a nice console
interface. Which unfortunately required authentication. So back
to square one. U boot.
Excellent. Maybe I could boot it in recovery mode fix the
password. No unfortunately they
put a password on the uh on the boot loader. And yeah I have a
confession. I live in
California. This was October. The middle of winter. This
device is outdoors. It was too
hard for me to take. So I had to look at an easier path and more
comfortable. Um so [pause]
Behind this access point there is a website. As I mentioned.
That website has properties. If
you use showdon you’ll find out that actually 12 or so uh very
courageous people maybe ignorant
decided to have that device also internet accessible. [pause]
Guys this is where you’re
supposed to laugh. Thank you. [chuckle] Um [pause] thanks to
showdon I was able to verify
that my findings actually no my lawyer’s not present so do what
you want with he Showdon
findings. Um [pause] Remember the open access point? It has an
SS ID. So I went to those
wonderful folks at wiggle dot net. And uh looked at their
database. Guess what. I’m not
the only one who detected those. Uh they’re all over the world.
And they’re captured for
posterity. You know have GPS coordinates of all of those
devices or some of those
devices. Um who war drives? Thank you. Keep doing it. Upload
to wiggle um because it’s a
treasure trove of data about people that like I want to say F
up no mess up. Let’s go back to
the web server. [pause] That’s it. My talk is over. Thank you.
Um there’s an authentication
screen we can’t do much about it can we? Of course not. It’s
funny how I’ve seen other slide
decks today that also use a password file called rock Q dot
txt. Who’s used it in the past?
[pause] Oh come on guys. If you didn’t raise your hand that’s
the best password file on earth.
Um so I ran my brute force. 36 hour later yeah I know I know
I’m lazy but it was 36 computers
at computer hours not mine. Um turns out admin support works
very well. [laughter] Okay where
do we go from there? Looking around the little website on the
server. There’s a nice little
page that caught my attention. No such file or directory.
Ooooo, guess what happens when
you put a file there? Um for those of you who don’t have
their url decode option on
Google glasses this is what it looks like. [pause] Copy shadow
file in to that location. What
would happen? Yeah I might break my 20 thousand dollars solar
array by putting something
there. Um but I didn’t. [pause] By the way this MD5 I tried to
brute force it. I failed. If you
ever get to it I believe it is still on those devices. Um
please send me an email. I would
appreciate it. So that that route didn’t work out. Um I
needed something easier.
Remember I can I can essentially run a script through that
injection. Um so PS all oh guess
what? The HTDP server is running under root. Bingo. Also the
manufacturer is nice enough has
net cap already on the device. Ooooo [laughter] By the way I
won’t admit that in public but
it still took me 4 to 6 hours to get my reverse shell working.
But I didn’t say that. Um I did
eventually get it working. I had root on that device. What do you
do with root? I know what I
didn’t do. I didn’t get a copy of the file system. So once I
was locked out I no longer had
anything to work on. But after a little bit of uh kung fu with
the drive uh mount [pause util
11:16] come on [applause] I know I know it feels good to pretend
I’m that good. Um what I did was
not rocket science. I just had the time to do it. [pause]
Clearly that manufacturer picked
the wrong customer to sell a device to. I’m sure they’re
still regretting that move. Um
it probably cost them a lot more in uh cleanup then it did uh in
profits. So anyhow looking
around the file system something caught my attention. Actually
not the file system the running
processes. Open VPN. You guys know what open VPN is for? A VPN
tunnel. Guess what. That VPN
tunnel was on at all times on the device. I didn’t do it. And
I swear this is not a joke. I
did not scan that VPN subnet. The manufacturer confirmed that
all of its little siblings are
on that subnet. [pause] Of course no where was it mentioned
in any of the documentation that
nobody ever reads that there was a VPN. Remember that device that
is still on my home network? I
was trusting it even though it didn’t appear trustable. I was
still doing that. Um so let’s
move on to me trying to get something done about the device.
So I tried politely in October
to get their attention. Hey guys. There might be a problem.
You know it it I’d like to talk
to someone who actually understand security. Yeah by the
way in the back? If the font
size is too small next time remember that DefCon is all
about line con. Get early to the
talk. [laugh] So a few emails later um while still trying to
reach to people that might
understand me through LinkedIn my in clueless installer and his
contacts I got nowhere. Actually
it got even worse. We’re now in mid December. Are you the owner
of this device? Do you have the
right to do what you’re doing? Yeah I’ve seen that play out not
that well. Um [laughter] They
actually already had my full name my email address my
everything. They already knew
everything about me but they couldn’t find me in the
database. Um this was the icing
on the cake. For those in the back I will read what is
highlighted. Or I’ll I’ll
paraphrase. We can help you get access to the system. Do I need
access to the system at that
point? No. I can help myself. Um and I I need to read that one.
Quote Info of system installed
on your roof is always kept as confidential since it was
installed. Apparently before it
is installed not guaranteed and you know English is my second
language I don’t I don’t
understand that sentence. So time to stay to change strategy.
Clearly I’m getting nowhere.
I’ve been at it for 2 months already. Um I’m talking to the
wrong kind of support. So I send
this email. What I’m saying there is hey guys here’s a
picture you remember the root
picture? Here’s a picture. The last line doesn’t belong there.
Forward this to whoever’s in
charge. I don’t want to talk to you no more. Remember the VPN
tunnel? Within an hour they were
logging in on that device and they were staring cleaning up.
Not not security cleaning up.
Damage control cleaning up. Disabling my account. Shutting
down the web server. Uh and
things like that in the process yeah disabling my entire array
went offline for 4 to 6 hours.
Um I was not done helping guys. Please. I was trying to be nice.
Um thankfully I didn’t tell them
about one thing I had found while browsing the file system.
In that CGI bin folder there’s
also a file called shell. [laughter] So I got back in and
uh told them the next day about
it. And repeat. So that’s the best part. Once I got to talk to
someone in charge of their
product development. Great guy. Um his first response was
there’s a problem. This is not a
production device. What? I bought a Tesla and the Tesla
price and the auto pilot crashes
on me because it’s a debug version I have? No sorry Tesla
guys. I’m just jealous.
Everybody in my neighborhood has one except for me. So if you
guys are thankful for the talk
don’t hesitate. Thank You. [laughter] [applause] Um
[applause] So 6 months later I’m
pretty sure they were actually not lying. It was a very
convenient excuse. But they
happen to ship me a development build. And a few thousand others
uh throughout the world. [pause]
god [pause] What they did well once I had a line of
communication with Tygo they
were actually very welcoming of my finding. And relatively
forthcoming with sharing the
insider information. Like for example telling me oh all of
those devices are on the same
subnet through the VPN tunnel. Um that would have been
preferable for not them not to
tell me that. Um one thing I discovered lot shipping.
Specially for the one oh this is
a very important question guys. Who in the audience is a black
hat versus a white hat? Come on
raise your hands. Oh my god there’s not a single hand up.
[laugh] Yeah okay. [laugh] Um so
next time you go into a system you’re not authorized to think
about disconnecting it from the
network before. Because this guy ships its logs every half an
hour. And boy was I noisy. Of
course there was nobody looking. Thank god. [laugh] But uh it’s
it’s important to realize that
even small IOT devices have that capability. And uh you might
trigger a few alerts if you’re
not too careful. So got root. I made fun of the vendor. Why am I
talking about this? And this is
actually the most important slide of the entire
presentation. Yeah I could
remotely see this little red button? There’s software behind
it. I could remotely shut down
any of those thousands of solar arrays. I could be a pain to
people off the grid. Maybe. I
don’t have there’s not enough electricity production for it to
be meaningful yet. It will be in
a few years. But not today. What’s more important is this is
a bought. I could have a
thousand of those remotely controlled on your whole network
spying on your home activity.
You know oh shoot my my kid is here so I can’t say prawn but
things like that. Um [pause] The
biggest part the part that bugs me the most is even though I’ve
been a security practitioner for
a long time. Only after this device being on my network did I
realize I really needed 2
networks. My home personal network and a completely
independent IOT network. On
which I have of course this guy now. He was the first candidate.
But the nest um a few
development boards. Who’s played with the particle photon
photons? Yeah. Those are
excellent devices. Um but just like this guy don’t trust them.
Um my security cameras you know
those cameras that I bought on allibaba with that Chinese
firmware? That is apparently
very chatty. Uh I won’t go further. So yeah. Is your mom or
your brother or your family
expected to have 2 networks at home and to be able to manage
those? No. There is no way that
that even us handle it. There is no way that customers of IOTs
can be expected to actually
protect themselves from those devices. That is a very sad
state and I hope that message
comes out of DefCon as much as possible. Because it is time
that we have a URL rating of
devices uh that also takes into account your privacy. Cause we
all have that expectation. You
don’t buy a car without seat belts. [applause] Yes.
[applause] Responsible
disclosure is hard. Yes. Don’t give up. Please. Follow
responsible disclosure. And
finally. Thank you to all IOT devices for so much
entertainment. [laugh] Thank you
to quite a few people. My wife for tolerating my late nights.
Uh Rafael where are you? Stand
up. [pause] Keep doing your packet storming. [applause] And
ty Tygo for not suing me. Thank
you. Uh you got me scared there. Guys thank you. [applause] [off
mic comment] Yeah you screwed up
[fades out]


    I live in a little country town in the middle of nowhere, Australia…. And even here, I'm seeing solar monitoring stuff appear on wifi scans. My first thought when I saw them was, "Holy crap! I hope those aren't internet connected".
    Our council (ie city, mayor's office, etc) has just decided to implement water meters with self-reporting. Thankfully they are using a one-way radio system on an obscure band. Or so they say…. When I heard of the project, my first thought was "botnet".

    One councillor who knows me said I was being paranoid…. I guess she's not used the internet much.

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