Anti-gravity and the True Nature of Dark Energy | Space Time | PBS Digital Studios

Anti-gravity and the True Nature of Dark Energy | Space Time | PBS Digital Studios

The true nature of dark energy
confounds even the world’s smartest astrophysicists. It’s strange anti-gravity
effect is unlike anything we’ve ever encountered. Today, we get to
the bottom of it. A few episodes ago, I asked
you to take a wild ride with me into the heart of Einstein’s
general theory of relativity and its description of
the vaster of scales of our universe. Today, we get the huge
payoff for our efforts. We already have some
pretty awesome insights. One, the universe is expanding. And it will expand forever. There’s it’s just too little
matter in it to recollapse. Two, such an underdense universe
should be geometrically weird, a negatively curved
hyperbolic hyperplane. Paradoxically, our measurements
points a near-perfect flatness. This is only
possible if we missed some unknown type of energy
pervading all of space. And three, the expansion of
the universe is accelerating. We know this, because we’ve
mapped its past expansion history using
distant supernovae. There’s an unseen
influence at work. We call it dark energy. This dark energy is described
by the cosmological constant in the equations of
general relativity. It both flattens the
universe and leads to exponential expansion. But this is incredible. It means we have dark energy’s
number, its fingerprints at the crime scene. Knowing a possible theoretical
form for dark energy will unlock many
of its mysteries. Today, we’re going to talk about
the simplest interpretation of dark energy, one where the
cosmological constant really is constant. It doesn’t change over time. All of our data is completely
consistent with that being true. A constant cosmological constant
represents a nonzero energy of empty space, a vacuum energy. The more space you have, the
more dark energy you have. It’s a constant energy density. OK, the big, weird fact about a
constant vacuum energy density is that leads to
exponential expansion. We saw that general
relativity demands this when we looked at the
first Friedmann equation. But what physical
thing about dark energy is producing this outward
push, this anti-gravity? That’s what we’re
going to answer today. Now, the Friedmann
equation that we’ve been playing with so far
just isn’t going to cut it. It only tells us that
dark energy produces an exponential change in the
size of the universe, not necessarily an
exponential growth. Looking at that
question by itself, it could just as well be
an exponential shrinking. To see why dark energy pushes
outwards and accelerates the expansion, we
need to go deeper. It’s anti-gravitational effect
emerges in the second Friedmann equation. The first Friedmann equation
is all about the rate of expansion of the universe. The second is
actually much simpler. It’s about the acceleration or
deceleration of that expansion. It describes the forces pushing
or pulling on the expansion. Here it is. Once again, we can read
this in simple English. a is the scale factor, sort of
like the size of the universe. And a double dot is
the rate at which the expansion is changing. It’s the acceleration
of the scale factor. It depends on the
density here, rho. The more matter and energy
in the universe, the harder gravity pulls inwards,
trying to stop the expansion or speed up the collapse. That’s this negative sign here. Positive acceleration
outwards, negative inwards. This thing is in a real way
just Newton’s law of gravitation for the whole cosmos. So if rho is density,
what’s this p? That’s the pressure due
to fast-moving particles and radiation. In general relativity, energy
slash mass and pressure both curve space time. The way pressure does
this is pretty weird. Think about a pressurized tank. The internal gas pushes outwards
as fast-moving particles collide with the walls. So if fast-moving particles
produce an outward push in pressure, then is
this how dark energy is causing expansion to accelerate,
by causing positive pressure? No, that can’t be it. Because pressure only
produces a direct force if there’s a difference in
pressure between two regions, a pressure gradient. In order for the pressure
of fast-moving particles to create an outward push,
the region beyond them has to be an area
of lower pressure. But on the larger scales, the
universe is pretty smooth. It’s homogeneous. And so the pressure is
the same everywhere. Instead, the overall
effect of pressure on the curvature of space
time is a purely relativistic effect. See, high pressure from
regular matter and energy means very
fast-moving particles. And the motion of
these particles results in a combination of
relativistic corrections. The ultimate effect
is that the massive of a region of the universe
is higher if its particles are moving quickly compared to a
region where the particles are moving more slowly, even if
the overall energy density of those regions is the same Positive pressure pulls
the universe inwards. So it looks like
as long as there’s anything in the universe
whatsoever, that whole right side is negative. So acceleration will
always be inwards. In other words, gravity
is always attractive. What goes up must come down. Described this way, the
universe is never static. It’s either expanding and
slowing down or contracting and speeding up. This was actually
Einstein’s motivation for adding the cosmological
constant in the first place. He wanted a static universe. So he added to his
field equations that would give a positive
outward acceleration in the second
Friedmann equation. Here’s what it looks like. The plus sign here can
counter the minus sign here. The cosmological
constant was designed to work in the
opposite direction to regular matter and energy. That’s what anti-gravity
looks like mathematically. This is not just
some math trick. Dark energy is real
physical stuff. And that means its
anti-gravity effect must come from its physical properties. The effect of the
cosmological constant is the combined effect of
dark energy’s own density and pressure. So let’s describe it that way. In our far future
universe, regular matter will have diluted
away and will only have the density and pressure
due to dark energy, rho lambda and p lamba. Now, the energy
density of dark energy is positive, just
like regular matter. It has to be,
because dark energy helps regular matter flatten
the geometry of the universe. That means its density term
also works on the side of matter to try to slow down the universe
in the regular attractive gravity way. So dark energy’s density
isn’t causing expansion to accelerate by itself. That leaves us with pressure. But we just discussed
how positive pressure can’t cause expansion
to accelerate outwards. It turns out that
dark energy does produce an enormous pressure. That pressure isn’t a positive. It’s negative. A negative p here
cancels this minus sign and can result in
outward acceleration. That’s where dark energy’s crazy
anti-gravity effect comes from. It’s negative pressure. What does negative
pressure even mean? Well, positive pressure
pushes outwards, like in our pressurized tank. So negative pressure
would pull inwards. It will be like attaching
stretched elastic bands between the inside
walls of the tank. It’s a tension. Both have positive
energy density. But positive
pressure pushes out. Negative pressure pulls in. And we’re back to
that contradiction. Weirdly, the inward pulling
pressure of dark energy ultimately drives
expansion outwards. Again, this is due to
its relativistic effect. The direct effect of dark
energy’s negative pressure doesn’t do anything, because
that negative pressure is the same everywhere
in the universe. But even though the negative
pressure has no direct effect, it has its relativistic effect. Relativistically,
negative pressure has to do the opposite of
positive pressure and results in anti-gravity, because math. The relativistic effective
of negative pressure is actually really, really
hard to describe intuitively. And in fact, such an
explanation may not be possible. Part of the problem is that
negative pressure doesn’t come from the motion of dark
energy particles, whatever they might be. Instead, it comes
directly from the fact that the density of
dark energy is constant. Let’s say I’m holding a
volume of the universe that has a constant energy density. If I expand it, then it
has more energy in it than it did before,
because it has more volume. I would have to provide
that energy, which means I’d have to do work to expand it. That’s exactly how we
define negative pressure. A volume has negative pressure
if it takes work to expand, just like a volume
with positive pressure takes work to compress. Negative pressure means
energy is gained on expansion. That’s what happens
with dark energy. As the universe expands,
more dark energy is created because its energy
density has to stay constant. That looks like
negative pressure, and yet this abstract-sounding
negative pressure has a very real physical effect. It’s the opposite effect
to positive pressure. And it’s a clear,
outward-pushing anti-gravity effect when we look at its
role in the second Friedmann equation. In the first
Friedmann equation, we see it as an exponential
change in the scale factor. But both agree that
a constant energy density and the resulting
negative pressure leads to accelerating expansion. OK, so it takes work to expand
the volume of the universe. And the energy turns
into new dark energy. But who’s doing that work? Where does the energy come from? The answer is maybe nowhere. Here’s where intuition goes
completely out the window. See, the law of
conservation of energy no longer applies in
an expanding universe. This law is a property
of a Newtonian universe, in which space and time are
fixed static dimensions. In a universe governed
by general relativity, this is no longer true. Energy can be forever
lost or gained from nothing within an
expanding curved spacetime. In a recent episode, we talked
about the Breakthrough Starshot program, LightSail to the stars. Let’s see what you had to say. So a few people were wondering
how that probe sends its signal back to Earth. Well, the idea is to
beam the data back with low-power
lasers, or perhaps alternatively to use the sail
itself as an antenna for radio transmission. The signal will
be weak, but we’ll know exactly where to look and
can use gigantic detectors here on Earth. If the signal sent by laser,
then the same phased array that projects the
launched laser will also be able to spot the
returning later signal. Patrick Romo and
others asked whether we could decelerate the
LightSail in the wind from the destination star. Well, there’s actually no
way to decelerate the craft. The impulse generated
by the laser is many orders of
magnitude greater than that of the star
at the other end. No, the craft will zip
through the [INAUDIBLE] system in a few minutes,
recording data as it goes. And this is why you want to
send a large number of craft. A few of you suggested that
Moore’s Law is near its end. So while it’s true that there’s
a limit to the miniaturization of silicon chips,
Moore’s Law for computing has been roughly consistent
since around 1900, with the first mechanical
tabulators followed by solid state
relay calculators, then vacuum tube computers. If we never move beyond silicon,
then maybe we have a problem. But there are already
multiple possibilities there. The analogies to Moore’s Law for
laser power, material science, battery tech, et cetera,
are also alive and well. Aging Reversed would like
to spend the entire Starshot budget to cure cancer, rather
than sending a speck of dust into nothing. Well, the final
cost of Starshot is expected to be several billion. But that’s similar to the annual
budget of the National Cancer Institute and a small
fraction of global spending on oncology research. If it were possible
to cure cancer with that amount of
money, well, then we would have cured it in a year. Advances in medical research may
produce more tangible benefits, but it’s easy to
underestimate the benefits of inspiring forward-looking
projects like Starshot. They give us a sense
of unity and optimism that feeds back into
all of our efforts. Inspire enough
smart kids to become scientists instead of bankers,
and it is well worth it.


    It is theoretically possible to turn any positive mass into negative mass. We need a 4th space dimension in order to rotate an object with mass, by first offsetting it along the 4th axis and then rotating it around any of the 3 known axis by 180 degrees, then sliding it back to zero on the 4th. The object will continue to exist as before only its energy will be out of phase with the rest of the entities thus having negative gravity.

    Negative energy comes from the repulsive negative energy of an non interactive, superconductive, expansion field of infinite velocity electrons of dark energy. The positive gravity field energy of protons and neutrons is created by the high velocity impacts of dark energy electrons creating vorticular, low energy conservation within the gavity field..

    I have a few points of contention, but my biggest is; there is no free lunch. We have extensively exhausted trying to prove long the laws of thermodynamics, especially that in order to go anywhere you have to leave something behind (In energy). What if there is not only a thermodynamic tax, but a cosmological one?

    "Anti-gravity" is just negative mass. Like electricity has a + and – charge, magnetism has a N and S pole, gravity has opposite characteristic (negative mass)

    You have to think about it like gravity having an opposite effect. Gravity is pulling everything inwards but the concentration of mass and energy is causing space to expand.

    i,ve watched ton,s of these videos and still wouldn,t know enough to answer even a basic question why i,am i watching theses

    You know what else could resemble a Big Bang and have a surface of hyperbolic hyperplane? a cell dividing. Which could also explain the "expansion" effect we see. The universe was a single cell and we are about to become 2 identical universes. (cells) And God is the sum total of all universes. (cells)
    Ah, crap! I dropped my bong.

    PBS stands for public broadcasting station so sponsors and donators that supported PBS for couple decades now and viewers like us!!!

    Could you hypothesize on why an alien ship would ascend and then seemingly start a trajectory that follows the path of a vortex at high altitude, the higher the accent when the pattern was intitiated, the larger the diameter of the arc of the vortex. I saw four orbs do this.

    :p PLEASE READ my shot point of view of the universe : 

    See like this : you have the mass of galaxies that pulls the fabric of space around itself, and the dark energy would push gravity around them (like bubbles of water in ISS). 
    It would mean dark energy contains no information.
    And that's why we find dark energy in very lonely regions of space where even the fabric of space doesn't exist (it also could explain 'the faster than speed of light' expanding universe), it means our galaxies and gravity around it are less dense than dark energy. 
    AND to conclude I really think and wish the universe is not infinite but spherical and has no borders : imagine if dark energy is the "basic fabric", with no law where A Big Bang with new laws can occur and make matter expand, and after trillions of years go back to one point infinitely dense and BOOM ! create another universe with different laws ! 
    Do you visualise that motion of bubble expanding and going back ?
     If we look at the universe at max scale we see branches of galaxies floating around : It looks like string theory from what I understood ! Each atom may not be composed by matter but by a fluffy unpredictable "source of energy" vibrating in a certain way and creating a different set atoms ! So the rules that make up our universe, making matter behave in a certain way could be the vibration of such a sting ! SO to conclude we can't see inside an atom because light can't "hit" it : so an atom may be full of vacuum for us because we are enormous compared to it but is dark energy to the small entities living inside this bubble 😀

    SO AT 6:03 in the background, for me, its the string ! you are watching the inside of an atom with crazy details ! 😀

    The pressure is less outside the universe, causing the universe to race outwards towards lower density . That is the cosmological constant. Dark energy is not a thing, it is an emergent property of the universe. The expansion is caused by the lower energy state outside our universe, no dark energy required.

    Regarding 13:25 Wouldn't SSR Calculators follow after Vacuum Tube Computers?
    It seems as though a Solid State Relay would follow the Vacuum Tube. I could be wrong.

    These videos are addicting and I'm really saddened that math was taught so atrociously to me in school. They never taught us what math actually is and what it can describe the way he does.

    We have been speaking a lot lately of the universe's expansion, but expansion in what? What is this thing in which the universe expands? Even if it's a perfect vacuum, it must have properties like size and density. What I'm getting at is that our universe contains matter which implies there is more pressure inside the universe than outside of it. Wouldn't it be a more economical explanation (Occam's Razor) that the vacuum outside the universe drives the expansion of our universe without having to resort to a theory about dark energy or dark pressure?

    about hoping to find a cure for cancer, too late.Savicell developed in Israel and got even by the US approved xpovio, which is bye-bye metastasis.But, as usual it's not on the EU market to appease people who define their race by having an ideology.So to die in the EU from cancer is a sign of tolerance, since jew hatred is considered a sign of tolerance to compensate for WW2.Doesn't make sense?Yup, it doesn't.

    Here is my theory :
    1) Black holes emit dark energy, a by product of absorbing stars, light, time and space.
    2) Dark energy in turn creates dark matter , which is dense enough to act as a buffer against other dark matter from other sources ie other black holes from another galaxy.
    3) What this does is create what you see, the Universe expanding as the supermassive black holes within each Galaxy push against every other galaxy.
    4) This process will accelerate until the visible matter within a Galaxy is used up and the supermassive black hole has run out of fuel ie mass/light etc
    5) At this point the Galaxies are so far apart and the space between is so densely packed with dark energy and dark matter that:
    6) The supermassive black hole implodes under its own negative gravity ( it no longer has the fuel to push outwards) and the dark energy/matter , and then explodes as a White star
    7) The white star is the recreation of atomic sub-particles from dark matter and the innumerable particles squeezed into the Black hole over its lifespan
    8) The temperature created by the white star creation is so high a big bang occurs
    9) Rinse and repeat with every galaxy in infinity, always and forever.

    Electric Universe Theory is an amazing concept that explains some of the questions raised.
    look for Thunderbolts Project – some of the work by this community is amazing

    Or, our universe is actually a "bubble" that started from a quantum fluctuation, energy randomly oscillating is some frequency which caused the "big bang".
    Outside of that bubble, there is most likely infinite "pure" energy which is the fuel of expansion or what you call dark energy, the same kind of energy that was used to start the inflation.
    Just a logical deduction from all the physics i know.

    The universe is not expanding because of dark energy. Dark energy restricted the universe to expand. Not like whores

    I can understand some beginning physics just like I can understand some beginning math.

    wait general relativity contradicts with the law of conservation of energy ? … if that was true then what was the black hole's information paradox all about ?

    Apparently, neutron stars can sometimes reduce their rotational velocity. I wonder if this is due to the star ejecting matter that takes away that rotational velocity. This matter would be made of neutrons probably in highly dense clumps. Might dark matter be free neutrons? Possibly there is enough slow moving neutrons to account for the dark matter mass.

    I am 14 yrs old and i really like your content but i am having difficulties with understanding the things you say could you plz remake an easier version of them (no pressure completely optional)

    The cosmological constant. I've fixed many chemistry experiments in high school by postulating that very thing, thus proving that whatever my results, they are explainable to be a perfectly correct answer, thus deserving of A+ grades on those experiments, even though my answers were wrong.

    I wrote a lengthy comment somewhere that if we used thyristors or better 3 state devices, and going to Trinary numbers instead of binary, then Moore's law goes out the window. Trinary devices in a 32 bit machine are 5×10^15 times as fast even though clocked half as fast as today.

    What's your issue with bankers? Myself, I'd rather have a banker than two-dozen publicly-funded pseudo-scientist suckling at the gov't teet. Perhaps you think lasers and telescopes and colliders grow on trees? Perhaps you think these things were built by people with no profit motive? Do you work for free? Did you pursue your education thinking of a life without compensation? What's your issue, pal?

    You're actually wrong about energy not being conserved in an accelerating universe. It only SEEMS like it from a practical point of view, because of the unfortunate side effects of dealing with infinite sets. If you were to have a giant ball with mirrors on the inside, and a beam of light bouncing around inside of it, the light would in fact NEVER be redshifted cosmologically, it would NEVER lose any energy (assuming the mirrors are perfectly reflective). This is because one way of looking at it is that in order for the mirror ball to not explode, it must be under tension in order to hold itself together, and in a freefall reference frame, the mirrors facing each other on opposite sides of the ball are artificially being accelerated toward each other relative to freefall, in much the same way that you are being accelerated upward by the ground you stand on here on Earth pushing you up, relative to what you would experience in freefall (falling through the floor) and so every time the light bounces off a mirror, it gets a slight doppler boost from the mirror having accelerated toward it slightly which exactly counteracts the "cosmological redshifting" it experienced since the last bounce. It doesn't actually take any energy to maintain this, the ball is just under a very slight tension but not enough to pull it apart, and so you see the outward acceleration can be seen as an artifact of the coordinate system, that there is simply a vector field pushing everything out, and in this reference frame, the energy content of the universe is invariant.

    What I don't understand, is how we can say that 'we see the universe is still expanding and accelerating' when all we see in the distance is the past. Red/blueshifts tell us only that in some remote past the universe was accelerating and expanding away from us. I know, there's too little matter out there to produce the amounts of gravity to halt this expansion. But if there's enough dark matter producing vast amounts of dark energy powering this acceleration, how can it then be that in the early days of the universe, the forces of gravity and anti-gravity/energy and dark energy/matter and dark matter did not eradicate eachother? How can it be that the universe even exists? Or that dark matter and energy allow for solar systems or entire galaxies to exist without planets simply falling away from their stars? Acceleration must imply that the void between galaxies is the only place where these forces exist, yet seemingly (somehow) without interfereing with the outer boundaries of galaxies. Otherwise we would have seen galaxies that desintegrate at their outer regions, is it not?
    Ah well, a single fool can ask more questions than a thousand wise men can answer.

    I finally figured it out ,how all this work, and whats all is about (look below!)



    …..he's reading from a script, written by a very very smart person.

    Regarding your reply to AgingReversed…Well done, but missing an important observation IMHO. Spacecraft are not launched into space packed with bales of cash to dump into the void. Those billions are spent right here on terra firma paying the rocket scientists, engineers, secretaries, janitors, suppliers for the janitors, fuel producers, steel producers, builders, welders…the list is endless. Space programs are really massive economic engines that generate the taxes, donations, grants and such that can fund things like cancer research. On the other hand, it’s doubtful that cancer research (though an economic engine in its own right) could fund projects like Starshot. Also, where cancer research may save individual lives, only venturing into space will save our species, but that’s another topic.

    I know what gravity/time/dark energy is !!!!!!!!!!! I know why the universe is accelerating and why there is a dark energy that increases.No one talks about things that the atom does.Crazy world !!!

    You need to electrically create compression and rarefaction in the ether where you have low ether pressure/rarefaction in front of your ship and high ether pressure/compression in the back of your ship. You ship will be gravitationally pulled towards the low ether pressure. You don't have true anti-gravity without this. You can treat ether like a fluid or air entire physical universe is submerged in.

    I think this is the least well done Space Time episode I've seen. Nothing here explained anything – it's basically just "this is just how it is."

    But – it redeemed itself with the final comment response: "Inspire enough smart kids to become scientists instead of… bankers, and it's well worth it." <— A-FRAKKIN'-MEN, BROTHER.

    This mindset that we shouldn't spend a penny on things like space research and so on before EVERY SINGLE THING some random person considers a problem on Earth is fixed first is the most misguided thinking imaginable. That would mean we NEVER DO THOSE THINGS, because such people are never happy – they have a dream for the planet that is simply not achievable, because of human nature. Liberal nirvana will never happen. Furthermore, for all we know there is an asteroid out there with our name on it – a vigorous space program is our only chance at being ready to deflect it. Space research could easily turn out to be the most important work we have ever done. We have been hit in the past – we will be hit again. End of story.

    Can't you explain the so called "dark energy" by having multiple universes or bubbles of the universe beyond our visible universe? If it would be like the gravity we all know, it'd provide the tension, thus making the universe "flat"

    I almost understood until I saw the example with the expanding box. Then I did understand. WOW! This is not intuitive stuff.

    It's the stress energy in non conserved form. Symmetry breaking conserve that stress energy into particle production. You can better call vacuum energy if you wish and the expansion its not necessary related to size but the system growth with time evolution.

    two gravitational bodies stretch space between them and this expands space, while gravity keeps them clinging to each other. The stretching inflates the space on either side of the bodies from the center of their combined gravities.

    Cancer has been cured many times over. Its all suppressed for profit. I'm an all in capitalist but there are definitely atrocities committed due to greed. Imagine how much money Big Pharma would lose if there was no cancer patients overnight.

    How about you first prove the actual existence of so-called "dark energy" before you wildly speculate on it's "nature"?

    Can negative pressure be understand as outside positive pressure acting on something?
    Like what happens the deeper one goes into the ocean depths

    Would it not make sense that the unknown energy is time? What if the action of time on matter is different to the action on space? Could it push matter into space… and push space itself apart… like pumping air into a balloon?

    HAHA My brother told me this but explained it he called this dark matter . I cant remember everything what he told me I mean this was about 19 years ago and something about AU scale how space is no empty but dark mater and how it can be used. Anyways don't think there is enough space here to write it all. And all this time I just thought he was NUTS 😀

    wow…the final grade an 'F' …no clarity, no 'defining' moment of understanding on any level regardless of 'maths'…the implication hints that objects of a certain size are negative in relation to the pressure of the universe from the moment of expansion and are in effect 'polished' orbs …much like round stones of varying density in streams of flowing water being rounded by time…the interesting part is when the universe goes totally static in the future and all particles are quantum fluctuations…meh

    Okay did we exploded into something or did we exploded like a balloon? If it's like a balloon don't you think the outside forces is doing something like maybe destroying the anomaly that was created that anomaly been our universe.

    "Theres an unseen force at work…". Maybe probably the entity that created it, a creator of some kind…an unimaginably complex and powerful being…but what to call it…

    Lithium/Silica Crystalline (Dioxide?) Chips or as some science fiction crazy particles of truths, dialithium crystalline crystals that are aligned chips..

    Helium balloons are anti-gravity, if you can make a ship or whatever just like a helium 🎈, maybe one day Elon Musk will invent something that is even lighter than helium to make a Super Anti-gravity spaceship to take us all to Mars, yea! Seriously though, the Earth is flat, gravity does not exist, I've flown in many high altitude unpressured flights, some strange sh*t happens up there, one time I was holding on to a big empty water bottle I was waiting to throw away and it started expanding, I opened it up because I was worried it might pop, it sounded champagne bottle opening and the air inside the bottle turned to fog, I did it one more time then it stopped doing in, on way down I waited for the bottle to do it again, but it crumpled in my hand, real quick too, all I could think was "What the f*ck?", One time one of my earplugs popped out of my ears, it was in there good and tight they just don't pop out of your ear for no reason, it was very weird, but at no time did the air get any thinner, you just have to go up slow, like how a deep sea diver has to come to slowly or their blood boils, I guess the same law applies above the water too, just don't come down to quick either, that's the hard part, high altitude high opening drop I say, and they'll say parachutes don't deploy that high up because the air is to thin (lies on top of lies on top of lies), I'll say "Well they seemed to open just fine for your fake Mars Rover, eat sh*t, I stopped listening to you decades ago, I'm not basing anything off what you say"
    Maybe take another balloon with you in a backpack and small bottle of hydrogen, it could fill up but not as much as the first so you will drop slowly instead of rise, go where there is no FFA, an island or Mexico, tie yourself to a big balloon and see how high you can get, pussies.

    My mind is blown – I've connected the dots that the "negative pressure" of dark energy pertains to the inflaton field. I think.

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